Rocky Mountains: Wild Edible and Medicinal Plants part 1

A few weeks ago I moved to Steamboat Springs, CO, and overnight my world changed. I went from temperate, shady Washington, where everything is damp, green, and lush… to the Rocky Mountains, where nearly every day in this alpine environment is dry and sunny. I have been finding that the plant community is like a fusion between what is found in the high, eastern side of the Cascades (of Washington), and what I found in central Alaska–  Not quite everything from each, but a good mix of the two.

Now that I am getting used to what food I can forage for, and what medicine is readily available, I thought I would start to share it with you all…  First below I have some pictures of plants, and then below that I have a list of ways to use the plants. There are some plants that I have descriptions for below that I don’t have pictures for yet, sorry!

1. Salsify, Tragopogon dubious– This wonderful weed grows in just about every stretch of disturbed soil that there is around here. I have found it all over my yard, as well as on every bike trail and foot path that I’ve been on so far. You can see from the picture that the flower and the flower pod (which is to the left of the flower) have quite a unique look to them. The only thing I can think of that you may confuse the flower with from afar is dandelion, but once you get up close it is easy to see the flower with those special bracts, and stem with very non-dandelion leave, is nothing else but Salsify! The flowers, flower buds, young stalks, and leaves are all edible raw or cooked, and are very tasty. Be sure you get the young stalks because after the flower goes to seed they stalks seem to be a bit more woody.

2. Rose, Rosa spp.– Rose grows just about everywhere, so everyone should be taking advantage of its tasty rose hips and fragrant flowers. The flowers can be used to flavor honey or water, as well as made into a flower essence or potpourri. Although I don’t think there are official studies to support this, rose is commonly used for emotional support and to be uplifting. As for food, the rose hips are delicious and filled with vitamin C… just be sure to not eat the irritating hairs that surround the seeds in the center of the fruit. Often times I will dehydrate the rose hips and add to flavor tea, as well as keep a bag stored in my freezer so I can add them to various baked goods. Even the seeds have a purpose! Oil made from rose hip seeds is great for the skin. I put the oil over scars to help them disappear, and even add the oil to my face cream blend to help keep the wrinkles away and to rejuvenate my skin cells.

3. Alfalfa, Medicago sativa- Who needs to go buy sprouts at the store when there is alfalfa growing everywhere? The seeds of alfalfa can not only be sprouted, but also roasted or made into flour. The flowers, leaves, and young shoots can also be eaten, but I have to say I am most excited about sprouting the seeds.

4. Mallow, Malva neglacta– I was very surprised to see how abundant mallow is out here. Instead of buttercup threatening to take over the garden like back in Washington, here mallow seems to pose the biggest threat (In my garden area, at least. I can’t speak for other people’s gardens). It’s pretty lucky for me that the leaves, flowers, young shoots, and little “fruits” are edible. Recipes can also be found in various books and the internet on how to make homemade marshmallows with this plant! I am very excited to give that a try. The same gooeyness from this plant that you would use for the homamade marshmallows is also what is medicinal about this plant. The gooey substance that is found in all parts of the plant is very soothing– great to put over skin.

Yarrow, Acheillea millefolium– I love the story that goes along with the Latin name of this plant. In the beginning of my plant studies it helped me remember a key medicinal use for yarrow. Here it goes: In stories from ancient Greece it is said that Acheilles used this plant in battle. When his soldiers were wounded he was said to make a poultice of the leaves and apply it to the wound to help staunch the flow of blood. Hence the first part of the Latin name Acheillea. So there you have it, Yarrow is an excellent hemostatic/styptic—it will help to clot the blood and stop a wound from bleeding excessively.  Along with its styptic qualities, it is also anti-inflammatory, slightly antimicrobial and antibacterial, and can induce sweating (which can be very helpful in bringing down a fever or helping the body sweat out toxins). Use as tea, tincture, or poultice.

Dandelion, Taraxacum officianale– The wonder-weed! I absolutely love dandelions, and love that they grow everywhere. All parts of this plant are very useful. The flowers and leaves and edible and tasty, and the leaves are very nutritious. Eat them raw or cooked. The leaves are bitter, and you will find that some leaves are more bitter than others—just luck of the draw. However, I’ve found that the more bitter food you introduce into your diet, the more you will be able to tolerate, ever crave, bitter things. The root is wonderful too, and has many uses… I pickle the roots, and find them tasty that way. I also infuse vinegar with dandelion roots and other herbs for salad dressing. They can also be chopped up and roasted to make a tea with a bold, rich flavor. Yum! So, in a nutshell…Dandelions are a wonderful nutritious food, a diuretic, and a bitter, and are helpful in treating UTI’s, kidney, and liver issues.

Lamb’s Quarter, Chenopodium album– Yay for wild spinach! The leaves can be eaten raw or cooked, and are a nutritious addition to meals.

Sitka Valerian, Valerian sitchensis- For most people, this plant operates as a nervine relaxant and sleep aid. I say most people because for some it has the exact opposite effect and acts as a stimulant. In fact, one of the women who is my herbal mentor has this reaction. For me, though, does just fine in relieving nerves and helping me get a good night sleep.

Quaking Aspen, Populus tremuloides– Aspen has the good fortune to belong to the family Salicaceae, along with cottonwood and willow. Salicaceae is a special family because all of its members contain salicin—a constituent that is a pre-cursor to modern day aspirin. The members of this family act as a pain reliever, anti-inflammatory, fever treatment, and astringent. Use for whatever you might want to take an aspirin for. As a bonus, this plant is also anti-fungal and antibacterial. Hooray.

 Shepards Purse,  Capsella bursa-pastoris – All parts of this plant are edible, but don’t eat in large quantities. It acts as an antiseptic and diuretic, so is good for UTI’s. As an astringent, it is also useful in treating diarrhea and other “weepy” conditions. Note: do not take during pregnancy.

Common Sunflower, Helianthus annuus- flowers and seeds are edible.

Western Blue Flax, Linum lewisii- While the seeds this flax produces are smaller than the flax seeds you buy in the store, they are just as nutritious and well worth the harvest-time (in my opinion).  The fibers in this plant can also be used for cordage.

Nettle-Leaf Horsemint, aka Giant Hyssop, Agastache urticifolia- Like all members of the mint family, this plant is a good source of calcium and magnesium. It also has wonderful anti-virul qualities. Feel like your coming down with a cold? Add some leaves into your meal as a spice, or add a few leaves to tea! This plant does not have a minty taste, but has a flavor all its own. This plant also has a reputation for calming  various digestive complaints and cooling fevers.

Chokecherry, Prunus virginiana- Tasty fruits, but remove/don’t eat the seeds! The bark is great for coughs and chest colds.

Dock, Rumex acetosella– Another plant that I love and use often. The young leaves are quite nutritious—high in iron and other vitamins. They should, however, be eaten in moderation. The presence of oxalic acid in the leaves can give the unsuspecting wild foods glutton a stomachache. The seeds can also be eaten. Ground up they are wonderful to mix in to flour for breads, crackers, etc. For medicinal purposes, it is traditionally the root that you want to use. It is wonderful for the liver, and therefore also acts as a blood purifier. As a bitter it stimulates bile production, aids the liver in its functions, and helps promote healthy digestion.

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Making Mead with Wild Yeasts

I love experimenting with fermentation… and I especially love experimenting with using the wild yeasts already present in the air. Trying to ferment with wild yeasts really is an experiment every time because you never quite know how it is going to end up, even when using the same recipe over and over again. It is easy to go to a home brew store and buy a packet of champagne yeast, and have your mead turn our more or less the same every time… but there is something exciting to me about using wild yeasts, and I enjoy the slight variations I get in each batch of mead (it helps to keep the same old recipe from getting boring). I also think it is healthy for us to be consuming things that have been fermented with the yeasts present in our every day environment, instead of some foreign yeasts bought in an airtight packet in the refrigerator of your brew store.

The most common containers for brewing mead are either in a 5 gallon jug or a 1 gallon jug. Below are some general measurements that I use for those container sizes. Keep in mind that the “sit time” I have listed is variable depending on how long it takes for the yeast to set in and the temperature of the room– so I recommend keeping a close eye on your mead and test it every now and then to check the progress:

5 gallong jug= 12 lbs of honey (the containers that 12 lbs comes in looks to be about a gallon) + about 5 gallons of water + about a month and a half of sit time or until bubbling slows considerably

1 gallong jug=  3 cups of honey + about a gallon of water +  about a couple weeks of sit time or until bubbling slows considerably

Instructions: For both a 5 gallon recipe and a 1 gallon recipe, here is what you will want to do… First, put either 5 gallons or 1 gallon of water plus the proper amount of honey (listed above) in a pot on the stove. Heat up the water and the honey so that the honey can become fully dissolved in the water. Stirring will help this process. This is also the time to add any sort of flavor that you want to the mead– You can add all sorts of berries and chopped fruit to this mixture, whatever you want that you think might taste good. Don’t worry about putting chunks of fruit in the pot because you can always strain the mixture before putting it into your jug (that is what I do). You want to add the fruit at this stage because the heat in the pot will release the fruit flavor into your honey/water mixture. So I let this water/honey/fruit mixture heat up on the stove to a very low simmer, and I keep it on the brink of this low simmer for about 15 minutes (The person who I learned from never let it bubble too much, and I keep doing it that way because it always seems so work). If some white foamy stuff forms on top, don’t worry, just scrape it off to the best of your ability so it doesn’t expand and overflow the pot.

Now that you have your awesome mead mixture, let it cool for a little bit! I have heard from many people that the yeasts will die in a liquid that is too warm, so I let the mixture cool before I add it to my container (because it will cool faster in a big wide open pot than in a container with an opening the size of a quarter). I usually wait until the mixture is at room temperature, then I strain the liquid and add it to my containers.

 For the first week I keep a piece of cloth rubber-banded over the opening so that the yeasts can float in but debris will stay out. Old (but clean) tee-shirts work fine for this, as does cheese cloth— I cut one of my old tank-tops into a bunch of squares and have been using those squares to cover the openings of my mead jugs, kombucha jars, and other fermentation projects over and over again. I say “the first week,” but really the timing for this is variable– you will know the yeasts have taken to the liquid when you start to see a sort of “cloudy-ness” in the liquid, as well as bubbling. Once you know that the is yeast doing it’s magic in the liquid you have two options: either keep the cloth rubber banded over the opening, or put an airlock in the opening (which you can buy from a home brew stop for about a dollar). If you don’t know what an airlock is, it is a little contraption that you put in the opening of your jug that keeps air from entering, but allows the pressure building in the jar (from the bubbling) to release air out. I have airlocks but I don’t always use them. I enjoy the product both ways, and I recommend experimenting for yourself.

Note: I have heard that if you are not adding fruit to the mixture, and are just doing a honey-water mead, then you do not have to heat up the mixture– you can just mix the honey into room temperature water and add it to the jugs. I have always added a flavor to my mead, so I have not tried this! But I will give it a go someday…

Enjoy your mead-making! And if you have any questions, send us a comment/message…


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Herbal Body Care: Hair Rinses

Believe it or not, I do not use any soapy shampoo or conditioners, and my hair is not a gigantic knotty grease-ball. I am also able to manage scalp inflammation and a cracked, flaky, psoriatic scalp by using herbs. First and foremost, it is very important for general hair and scalp health to have good circulation up there, so with any herbal hair rinses, I try to have either nettle or rosemary in there…

Herbs for flaky, itchy, cracked scalps:                                                                                             1. Rosemary= astringent, antiseptic, circulatory stimulant                                                         2. Nettle= circulatory stimulant, astringent                                                                                   3. Chickweed= super soothing, and relieves itching                                                                     4. Calendula= super soothing and healing, anti-fungal, and astringent                                     5. Comfrey= soothing and healing to cracked scalps, mildly astringent                                 6. Chamomile= anti-inflammatory and antibacterial, soothing                                               7. Pineappleweed= anti-inflammatory and antibacterial, soothing                                        8. Lemonbalm– soothing, antibacterial, anti-virul, astringent                                                 9. Apple Cider Vinegar= for flaky scalps it is anti-fungal and astringent, and restores pH balance to the scalp

Oily Hair: I would use a base of either rosemary or nettle. I would also add a strong astringent, like yarrow, and something cooling and astringent, like lemonbalm or chamomile/pineappleweed.

Normal Hair: I would use a base of either rosemary or nettle. And since I wouldn’t be focused on either soothing or astringent herbs for a specific purpose, I would pick herbs that are just soothing and anti-fungal/bacterial (to keep germs/smell off) like calendula or chamomile.

Traditional Hair Rinse: I have found out that natives in this area of western Washington frequently used a sword fern root tea for their hair! And since sword ferns are here year-round, they are a good source for a hair rinse!

happy experimenting,


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Herbal Body Care: Mouth Care

I like having a clean mouth, even when I’m in the woods! But when I say clean, I don’t mean soap-n-suds clean, like you might get with regular toothpaste… so use the following tips n’ tricks to help your mouth stay as fresh as possible.

The “Twig-Brush”– I like picking a small, young twig , chewing the end of it so it is soft and frayed, and using it to massage my gums and brush debris out of my teeth. It doesn’t get everything out, but it is a lot better than using nothing. I also like picking twigs from trees that have anti-inflammatory qualities, like willow, because gums can so easily get inflamed by trapped food, and thereby end up trapping more food–an endless cycle! I also like to choose twigs that have anti-fungal and antibacterial qualities, like cottonwood and birch, to help keep the germs away. And although those are my favorites, you can really use whichever trees you want (but make sure you know what tree it is… you probably don’t want to go brushing your teeth with cascara haha).

Mouth Rinses and Fresheners- I like rinsing my mouth with things that taste good, but more importantly with things that help keep my mouth clean. And feel free to mix and match herbs! I like Self-Heal mouth rinses, because it is antibacterial, anti-virul, and astringent, and I seem to find it everywhere during the summer. I am a big fan of lemonbalm, too, because it has the same qualities as self-heal, and tastes very good! Field mint, peppermint, and spearmint are also good rinses, and leave the mouth fresh. A new favorite of mine is using the common weeds pineappleweed and chamomile, which are both anti-inflammatories, antibacterial, and soothing. And what is one to do in the winter, when the green herbs die back? Well, try some evergreen tea! The tea of firs, pines, and hemlocks are not only breath freshening, but anti-fungal as well!

Now I must finish by saying this…the less you eat refined sugars and processed foods with crazy chemicals, the easier it will be to keep your mouth clean! Happy trails, and have fun experimenting!


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Herbal Body Care: Vaginal Health

Hello All,

The other day I got to sit down with some of the folks from Alderleaf Wilderness College and talk about using medicinal herbs to care for your body. This post is basically a reiteration of that discussion for anyone who missed it, and for anyone who has questions/is confused about anything we talked about… I’ll make each section we talked about a separate post… so Vaginal Health, here we go…

1. UTI treatment– Many amazing plants that grow here in the Pacific northwest are great for treating urinary tract infections. Some of the signs you may have a UTI include, but are not limited to: pain/burning during urination, feeling like you have to urinate often but not much comes out when you do, your lower belly feeling tender, and cloudy urine. When you see those signs, reach for the following plants to help you:

Bearberry, aka Kinnikinnik, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi– this plant is a great urinary antiseptic, diuretic, and works to treat acid urine. Use the leaves in a tea or tincture. Uva-ursi kicks UTI’s in the butt! This plant, plus goldenrod and cranberry juice, are my go-to’s for UTI’s.

Juniper, Juniperus communis another great urinary antiseptic, diuretic, uterine stimulant, and also good for clearing acid wastes. Use berries and leaves (although I use mostly berries), in a tea or tincture.

Shepard’s Purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris a perfect example of common weeds being incredibly powerful medicinal plants– a nice urinary antiseptic and astringent! Use whole aerial portion of plant, in a tea or tincture.

Goldenrod, Solidago canadensis– a wonderful urinary antiseptic and anti-inflammatory. Use whole flowers and leaves, in a tea or tincture.

Motherwort, Leonurus cardiaca– a wonderful herb, and the only one listed here that is NOT a urinary antiseptic. The medicine of this plant acts, instead, as a uterine restorative and stimulant for vaginal infections. Basically it helps to restore vaginal/urinary health and makes all organs involved stronger and healthier. hooray! Use aerial portion of plant in a tea or tincture.

Cranberry Juice– a UTI miracle-worker.

2. Yeast Infection Treatment– Yeast infections are fungal infections, so we use anti-fungals  to treat them! Yeast can build up for a variety of reasons. Vaginal health is maintained by a balance between the yeast and bacteria that are present, as well a balanced pH, and overall balanced environment. If for some reason there is an increase in pH, increased moisture and heat (like when people get yeast infections from staying in work-out pants too much), an increase in sugar, or a reduction in the number of bacteria that are normally present (like when people get yeast infections after being on a round of antibiotics), the yeast and grow and grow and turn into a yeast infection! Plants to use for treatment include:

Calendula aka Pot Marigold, Calendula officinalis – Not a wild plant, but can easily be grown in your garden or greenhouse. It is  an amazing antifungal and astringent, and is incredibly healing and soothing! It’s curing abilities stretch far past yeast infections, and is used for many skin irritations/rashes, and menstrual regulation. Use the flowers in a tea, tincture, douche, or suppository.

Western Red Cedar, Thuja plicata– A very powerful antifungal. Very very powerful. Use the leaves. I would put it in a tincture. I have heard by quite a few of my herbal mentors that the volatile oils in cedar are so powerful that if you brew its tea for a minute too long, you can get an upset stomache– so I stay away from the tea, and stick to using it in a tincture, or in a very very weak and diluted douche or suppository.

Old Man’s Beard, aka Usnea very useful for a number of fungal and bacterial infections. You can make it into a tincture or tea. This is one that I have never used in a douche or suppository, so I will not speak to that. I see no reason why that cannot work, and I will surely experiment with it one day, but as for now I cannot confirm that using it in a douche or suppository form is either safe or effective.

Herbal Douches: an herbal douche is simply a vaginal rinse! The liquid you rinse with is an herbal tea/infusion that you let cool. You can buy a douche at the drug store, OR, use my handy dandy plastic bag method! Take a sandwhich bag, put the infusion in it, prick a hole in the bottom corner of the bag, and squeeze! the liquid comes out of the little hole in a nice strong stream. Naturally, because it does not go as far into your vagina as an actual douche, the liquid can only go so far up, but i find it works just as well.

Herbal Suppositories: I use cocoa butter, and calendula oil. I measure out how much cocoa butter to use based on how many suppositories i plan on using. For each suppository i measure out about 1 to 2 square inches (i guess about a tablespoon?). And for each suppository i use about 10 drops of calendula. I  melt all of the cocoa butter into  a pan, and add the oil, swish the liquid in the pot around, then pour into a baking sheet to let it cool. I let it only harden part of the way, then i scoop it out onto some saranwrap. At this point it is not fully hard, but still ver malleable, like paste or something. I then roll it like a sushi wrap, nice and thin. let it  finish hardening and then cut into inch-long suppositories. hooray.

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The Gifts of Stinging Nettle

Hey All!

I wanted to take some time to talk about the wonderful gifts of the plant Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica, which is very abundant here in the Pacific Northwest (CA north to AK).You can find them moist, shady places, and will know them immediately by touch once you feel their mild sting (the sting is really just little hairs on the plant that contain formic acid). I never see a stinging nettle by itself, and often see them in dense stands.

How will I know I am looking at stinging nettle? If you don’t feel like getting stung, you can ID the plant by the opposite leaves, square stem,  roundish-to-lanceolate leaves with serrations along edges, and leaves that are dark green above and lighter below. It is an erect plant that I have seen grow to my height (just over 5 feet), and when it gets that tall it often tips over into an arc.  When plant matures, green seed clusters appear at point where the leaves are connected to the stem.

What parts of the nettle will I use, and when do I harvest it? When harvesting fibers to make cordage, harvest the tall, mature plant after it has gone to seed (usually in fall). When harvesting the leaves for edible and medicinal purposes, harvest leaves off of a young plant that has not yet flowered (usually in spring-mid summer)– once the nettle plant flowers, it begins to create a chemical that is difficult for the body to digest. When harvesting nettle seeds for edible and medicinal purposes, harvest them when you see them! They usually show up in the late summer.

NETTLE LEAVES ARE EDIBLE, and contain tons of vitamins and minerals. They contain vitamins A and D, iron, calcium, potassium, sodium, and more. If you are daring, you can nibble on the leaves raw, or else cook them up however you like. They are good cooked like spinach, added to a stir fry, or marinaded and dehydrated into tasty nettle chips. You can even make them into a nettle pesto, or nettle cookies! The possibilities are endless.

NETTLE IS VERY MEDICINAL, both the leaves and the seeds. USES of the leaves: Nettle is a diuretic, astringent and tonic, and is an aid to circulation. Use the leaves in either a tincture or tea for these purposes. As a DIURETIC it eliminates water retention and menstrual bloating, as well as flushes extra acidity out of the kidneys. For aiding in CIRCULATION it increases the transport and excretion of blood-nitrogen wastes; so it is good for arthritis, eczema, and psoriasis. As an ASTRINGENT AND TONIC, it tightens and strengthens tissues; so it is good for healing scrapes and cuts, and also to lessen bleeding; it is also known for tightening inflamed urethral and bladder membranes, so it is good for ailments (infections, inflammations, etc) of urinary organs. USES of the seeds: the seeds stimulate the adrenals, and so is a good coffee substitute. Dry the seeds, grind them up, and add them to hot water or tea.

the seeds



p.s. some great books that I use for information on edible and medicinal plants are Medicinal Plants of the Northwest by Michael Moore, Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West by Gregory Tilford, Discovering Wild Plants by Janice Schoefield, and Indian Herbology of North America by Alma Hutchins… of course there are many many more, but these are a good start.

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Who’s Been Sleeping in My Bed???

Being the dirtbag, raft guide, wilderness kid that I am, I generally have a variety of sleeping situations set up at any given time.  When I am raft guiding in Leavenworth, on the eastside of the mountains I have a small squatters camp tucked into the side of a mountain where no one can see me.  It’s simple, just a tarp and a food cache I dug into the ground.  This past week, after guiding on the westside of the mountains for the weekend, I returned to find a few things missing from my camp. My sleeping bag and pad were both gone, the cover to my food cache had been peeled back and my drybag full of food was no longer there!

While coming to terms with the fact that my stuff had been stolen, I crawled up on the rocks to see if the screen I use for drying food was still there.  Looking out from that position I saw part of my sleeping pad drug up the side of the mountain.  Scanning farther up the hill I saw my sleeping bag pulled part way up the game trail that goes behind my camp.  I have seen deer using this trail many times since I’ve been camping here, additionally I’ve seen marmots, raccoons, squirrels, chipmunks, and deer mice, along with some coyote scat, all in the general vicinity of my camp.  I wondered who or what would have drug my stuff part way up this trail just to leave it laying in the dirt.

Upon inspection of my sleeping pad I found that it was torn to pieces and only about half of it was there.  Once I got up to my sleeping bag I saw that it only had a small hole in it, although it was obviously drug through the dirt quite a bit and covered in saliva.  As I looked farther up the hill I continued to find pieces of the pad strewn across the path.   I continued following the trail of sleeping pad along the steep rocky hillside until I could find no more.  From there I continued exploring the various game trails for about half an hour or so until I came across the remainders of my food supply.  It had been torn to shreds and all things edible had been eaten, aside from some peanut butter in a glass jar that the creature did not managed to pry open, but not for a lack of trying.  Assuming that the marks I was finding on the leftover debris were from incisors, I determined that my thief was a coyote, as the marks were only about an inch apart.  As I have seen their sign in the area before, I was comfortable with this conclusion and decided I would still sleep at my camp that night.

Taking a closer look at my pad later that evening, I started to notice a pattern amongst the holes.  I found a few really clear 5-claw impressions in the pad.  What I thought were the incisor marks of a coyote were actually the 2 leading toes of a black bear paw!  My camp had been ripped apart by a black bear!!!!  I found this to be much more concerning than a coyote.  I weighed the possibility of its return and the chances of it acting aggressively if it did.  After talking it over with Michelle…I decided to stay.  I was going to keep a knife and a pot to bang on nearby, but after spending a good part of the summer on this mountain it started to feel like home and I wasn’t willing to give it up.  At least that was how I felt until dusk set in and I heard a loud rustling in the bushes just uphill of my camp.  I frantically grabbed for my pot and knife and started stuffing my things in a bag.  After a few moments I calmed myself down, realizing it was probably just a loud Douglas squirrel bouncing through the trees.  And then my phone vibrated in my pocket.  I almost peed myself, my heart started pounding out of my chest, and I decided it was time to get the #$%^ out of there.

I spent the night at a friends.  Since then I have been back on the westside for a bit.  Tonight will be my first night back at camp with a new food storing location much farther from camp…

My camp

Camp – minus sleeping bag and pad

Food Cache – cover peeled back – food gone

sleeping pad

sleeping bag

sleeping bag hole

pad pieces

more pieces

food remains

pb jar w/ teeth marks

bear claws

consistent pattern

wildlife teeth marks

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